- Jun 10, 2018 -
The status of metal silicon in China
I. Status Quo of China's Metal Silicon Industry
In 1957, China established the first metal silicon enterprise with the help of the former Soviet Union, and produced very little. It was not until 1986 that it started to export in bulk and the metal silicon industry developed rapidly.
Although the United States and the European Union imposed anti-dumping measures on China's silicon metal since 1989, China's silicon metal industry has been hit hard, but it has not been completely destroyed.
Instead, it has achieved a great deal in quantity, quality, variety, and cost control. Progress.
The first is the quantitative aspect; as China's silicon metal enterprises have mastered the technology of building furnaces, they do not need to hire professional furnace builders, which reduces a lot of furnace construction costs, and the speed of furnace construction is more than one year old.
Down to three to four months, two 5000KVA-6300KVA parallel-connected submerged arc furnaces can be completed and put into production. Due to the high electricity prices in the eastern provinces of China, the silicon metal factories were transferred in batches to the southwest and northwest regions.
There have been factories that have 5-6 or even more than 10 metal silicon furnace groups at the same time, which has increased the actual production capacity of China's silicon metal. It is roughly estimated that there will be more than 500,000 tons of annual production capacity, and less than half of the production capacity will be deducted from the production stoppage. In the aspect of quality, the progress is even more pronounced, especially in the refinement of the product. In the past, the method of using the Soviet Union was used to pass chlorine gas into the bag and the product was easily exposed to moisture.
At the same time, due to the insufficiency of information from Chinese companies, it was not known that some foreign metal silicon companies used oxygen refining. Our own experiments were conducted using hollow carbons to achieve the success of blowing oxygen at the bottom of the bag. A lot of promotion was carried out and later adopted. The method of direct oxygenation at the bottom of the bag.
At present, most factories use oxygen scouring, and some manufacturers use chlorine and oxygen to reduce the amount of calcium. If oxygen refining is a clear indication of the improvement of the quality of China's silicon metal. In addition, the improvement of inspection technology and the update of inspection equipment are also a very important factor. In the past, China's silicon metal plants generally only examined the components of FE, AL, and CA in SI.
Now they begin to detect elements such as P, TI, S, MG, MN, and ZN. CIQ and CCIC's inspectors went deep into the factory to train inspectors. Many companies added atomic absorption spectrometers, ultraviolet spectrophotometers, and other testing equipment.
Moreover, it is necessary to detect at least once for each oven product. Although China's silicon metal companies have not fully achieved automatic flushing, automatic charging, automatic mixing of ingredients, and full automation of program control, companies have begun to use computers to accumulate raw data, and have strengthened the quality control management of all operators and the entire process.
In the process of manual material selection or semi-automatic material selection and cleaning, human factors are fully utilized. In the smelting process, with the accumulation of scientific management and experience, the careful selection of raw materials and the best ratio are achieved, which ensures the high quality of smelting. In terms of the appearance of the product, the factory paid attention to the finishing and packaging of the product.
To ensure the cleanness of the packaging, especially the chemical-grade product packaging, some factories added a layer of outer packaging on the packaging bag until the cabinet was loaded. Only take off. As the silicon metal companies pay attention to quality control, the number of chemical grade silicon metal products has increased significantly.
We once tested foreign chemical grade products and China's chemical grade products at the same time and found that the content of various elements did not differ much. After many users have used China's chemical grade products, the quality of Chinese products has been scrutinized. In the aspect of cost control, metal silicon manufacturers have many ideas. The first is to reduce the price of electricity, transfer to the southwest and northwest of China where there is sufficient hydropower in the mountainous area, and secondly, to use the low-frequency power submerged arc furnace to change the original 50 Hz three-phase AC power.
For 0-3 Hz, after using low-frequency current, the electrode arcing is easy, the arc is stable, the current skin effect is reduced, the power consumption is reduced, and the cost is saved; thirdly, charcoal, corn cob, pine cone ball, petroleum coke, Clean coal and other raw materials, reduce the cost of reducing agent; Fourth, some factories use carbon electrodes with a price lower than one-third to replace the graphite electrode; Fifth, take the "flood water open furnace, dry water stop furnace" approach As a result of the above measures, China's silicon metal companies have survived the difficult times, and they have occupied a place in the world's silicon metal market with its high quality and low price. Fully prove that China's silicon metal industry has tenacious vitality.
Second, China's silicon metal industry is facing serious problems
China's silicon metal industry has a certain degree of blindness and spontaneity during the early period of development, that is, 86-89 years. It is not a product of the original planned economy, but is a product of China's semi-open state at that time.
The government did not What guidance does it carry out and allow it to develop freely, most of them are operated by township enterprises and self-employed operators. The scale is very small and there is almost no leading enterprise with strong strength. Under the prevailing circumstances, there was a great deal of misalignment between some of the state-owned foreign trade companies that developed at the same time and those small silicon factories.
In the case of unsound legal systems, some foreign trade companies disregard the national interests for their personal interests. The low-price competition leads to a drop in the price of silicon metal. Completely anarchy. When the United States and the European Union imposed anti-dumping measures against China's silicon metal in the year of 89, in addition to the unfairness of anti-dumping itself, as far as China itself was concerned, at that time, there was not a powerful company and an authoritative industry association to effectively implement it.
The respondent. After being anti-dumped, the prices fell once again and again under the pressure of foreign merchants. In addition to the provinces where water and electricity were abundant, they were able to maintain 90% of the factory's losses and 50% of the factories went bankrupt. Since China's silicon metal industry has just been developed, it was anti-dumped, so this industry is also relatively backward in China's metallurgical industry. In the era of electronic information, the technical personnel in the silicon metal industry have been looking for The method of fully automated control, because the company has no accumulation of profits, in the absence of funds, it can only be on paper.
At the same time, China's silicon metal companies still have a problem of environmental protection. Now that the Chinese government has paid more and more attention to environmental protection, silicon plants are required to solve the problem of dust removal in 2-3 years. However, most factories pay wages for workers is still a problem. In the case of sustained low prices, there is no capital to engage in environmental protection. Some companies have realized that dust removal is not feasible, not only environmental issues, but also a waste of metal silicon dust powder, equal to a large loss of income, and some companies are also seeking solutions.
Third, the development prospects of China's silicon metal
With the development of global economic integration and the international division of labor in economic cooperation, China has abundant silica resources, small hydropower resources, and cheap labor. In addition, the production technology of silicon is not complicated, and the development of metal silicon production is more suitable for China’s national conditions. Convinced that the development prospect of China's silicon metal industry is good.
1, forming a small furnace group, after China's accession to the WTO, forcing some companies to join forces, there will be a group of private entrepreneurs in charge of a dozen or even dozens of stoves. They can control market prices in certain areas. At the same time, the legal system will be further improved, and the National Bank will become a commercial bank. It is no longer possible for a company to want to borrow money or not return a loan. No one can do a losing business. The price cannot be reduced indefinitely, thus stabilizing the market.
2. The small stove will still play a certain role. In China's mountainous areas, small hydropower is more developed, but the power is limited. It is not suitable to build a large stove. The products of the small stove will not have any problems in guaranteeing the quality of small batch users. And it has a special role in trial production of new products. For example: Our company has trial-produced FE, AL, CA according to a certain ratio ratio of metal silicon, when tested on a large furnace, seriously affecting the furnace status, economically uneconomical, we successfully tested on a small furnace.
3. China has a vast territory. Different regions have different grades of silica, and the content of related elements in the metal silicon products produced is different. China's silicon metal factories are widely spread. Users from all over the world can find the metal silicon products that are suitable for producing various metal alloys as long as they come to China.
4. The problem of dust removal and environmental protection in the silicon metal industry began to be mentioned on the agenda. Many companies are looking for partners to adopt a product-for-equipment approach and gradually resolve dust collection equipment problems. 5. China's silicon metal industry is an industry that entered the market economy relatively early. Most enterprises have already been in the hands of private individuals.
As long as there are suitable conditions, they want to build furnaces quickly and they want to stop quickly. Will not be subject to government intervention. More conducive to the development of the industry. After China's accession to the WTO, many users in the world have been looking for a stable source of supply in China and cooperate with China's silicon metal companies.
They will prompt China's metal silicon companies to continuously improve their quality and upgrade their equipment. The development of China's silicon metal industry is also no doubt. There will be promotion. The development of China's silicon metal is very beneficial to the world's steel industry, aluminum alloy industry, chemical industry, electronics and other industries to reduce costs. We hope that after weighing the advantages and disadvantages of governments across the world, we propose to adopt the same fairness and reasonableness for all countries that produce silicon metal. Taxation policy. Under the conditions of fair competition, China's silicon metal industry can make a certain contribution to global economic development.